Landing page optimization (sometimes also called conversion optimization) is the practice of actively testing multiple variations of a web page (or website) to see which one performs the best. Typically, this is done as part of an effort to improve the conversion performance of the site.
The simplest form of this type of test is called an A/B test. A/B tests involve creating two different versions of a page, and then selecting a version at random to show to a new visitor to the site (old visitors get the version they saw the last time they visited). You then measure the behavior of the visitors to the two different versions to see which group of visitors completes conversions on the site. You have to be careful to wait until you have a statistically significant amount of data to draw a conclusion. Once you have this data you can analyze it and decide on more tests, or simply pick the winner and move on.
Multivariate testing is a bit more complex, because it involves more than two variations in the test. In addition, you can mix and match multiple variations. For example, you may want to try two different logos, two different calls to action, three different page titles, two different color schemes, and so on. In multivariate testing, any combination of your elements could be what is shown to a particular visitor. Obviously, more data (visits and actions) is required to draw a conclusion than in a simple A/B test.
Landing page optimization can help in determining the value of a keyword because one of the elements you might want to test is the impact on conversion of variations of a keyword or phrase in the page title, the page header, and in other strategic places on the page. One variation of the test would use one keyword or phrase and the other variation would use a different one.
You can then see which keyword provides the best results from a conversion perspective. This data can provide you with an interesting measure of keyword value—its ability to help you convert your visitors. However, landing page optimization is not something that is practical to use to perform SEO tests (i.e., to see which version of a page ranks higher), as SEO tests can take weeks or even months to see results.
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